Home Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse


We are living in a time in which many things happen; take for instance the great political changes during the past year. Once in a while it is therefore necessary to review what happened and the backgrounds of the happenings. This also pertains to the keeper of Przewalski horses and the plans to reintroduce the animals into the wild and in particular to the IUCN/WWF semi-reserves project.

It is clear that we do not believe that animals, which have been kept in captivity for more than ten generations, can be set free without a long preliminary stage in a semi-reserve. It is also evident that we their general constitution, their degree of being domesticated and their social behaviour must be taken into account before they can be set free in a nature reserve.

We the refore strongly believe that the "Przewalski Horse Draft Global Conservation Plan" will fail if it is not radically changed. From the early beginning of our project and our dealings with Przewalski horses we have shared with others the results of our experiences (see list of references); it is therefore rather odd that these results are not taken into account or are presented as new findings.

For the sake of the Przewalski horses we hope that this will change soon.


ASHTON,D.G.; JONES, D.M. (1989): Some diseases of the Przewalski horse, Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski horse, Rotterdam, The Foundation for the Preservation of the Przewalski horse, 149-164..

ASHTON, D.G. (1984): A survey of diseases of the Przewalski horse: Equus, Band 2 Heft 2, ed. DATHE, E., Berlin, 179-188.

VAN DEN BERG, A.(1989): Het laatste wild paard. R.H.L. te Dronten, 1-26.

BERGEN, J.(1986): Wild horses of the Great Basin. University of Chicago Press, 1-326.

BOEREMA, J (1984): Onderzoek naar Przewalski paarden op de "Noorderheide", R. H. L. te Groningen, 1-50.

BOUMAN, J (1977): The future of Przewalski's horses in captivity, Int. Zoo Ybk, 17, 62-70.

BOUMAN, J.;Bos, H. (1979): Two symptoms of inbreeding depression in Przewalski horses in captivity. In: Genetics and hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski horse, Rotterdam, The foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski horse, 111-118.

BOUMAN, J (1980): Eine Analyse der Stammbuch-Daten und einige Konklusionen hinsichtlich der zukünftigen Züchtung der Przewalskipferde in Gefangenschaft. Equus 2, Heft 1, ed. DATHE, h., Berlin, 21-42.

BOUMAN, I.; BOUMAN, J (1989): Gefangenschaft schaftszucht des Przewalskipferdes: Überleben der Przewalski-ähnlichen Abkömmlinge oder die Rettung des Pferdes? in: Die Illusion der Arche Noah. Echo Verlag, Göttingen, 269-307.

DOBRORUKA, L.J. (1961): Eine Verhaltensstudie des Przewalski-Urwildpferdes (Equus przewalski Poliakov, 1881) in dem Zoologischen Garten Prag. Equus 1: 89-104.

DIJKSTRA, S. (1984): Chromosomen onderzoek aan 15 Przewalski paarden, Vakgroep Functionele Morfologie van de fakulteit Diergeneeskunde, Utrecht, 1-22.

FEH, C. (1988): Social Behavior and Relationships of Przewalski Horses in Dutch Semi-Reserves. In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 304-325.

HERRE, W. (1967): Gedanken zur Erhaltung des Wildpferdes, Equus Przewalskii Poljakov 1881: Equus, Band 1, Heft 2, ed. DATHE, E. Berlin, 304-325.

KEIPER, R. R. (1989): Social behaviour of captive and free-ranging Przewalski horses. In: Abstracts of the 21st Int. Ethological Conf. Utrecht, 93.

KIRKPATRICK, J. F.; TURNER, J. W. (1986): Comparative reproductive biology of North American feral horses: Journal of Equine veterinary science special issue, vol. 6, 5, 224-230.

RYDER, C.A.; WEDEMEYER, E. A. (1982): A cooperative breeding progrramme for the Mongolian wild horse Equus przewalskii in the United States: Biological Conservation, 22, 259-271.

SEAL, U. (1990): Przewalski 's Horse Draft Global Conservation Plan, Minnesota, USA.

VOLF, J. (1967): Der Einfluß der Domestikation auf die Formentwicklung des Unterkiefers beim Pferd, Equus 1, 2, ed. DATHE, Berlin, 401-406.

VOLF, J. (1989): Die "wilde" oder gezielte Aufzucht von Przewalskipferden (Equus przewalskii Polj., 1881)? In: Zool. Garten N. F., 59, 402-410.

WARING, G. H. (1983): Horse behaviour. Noyes publ., New Jersey, USA, 1-292.