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All lianas have in common that their axes have reduced amounts of supporting tissues, so that, by various mechanisms, they have to climb up trees, houses or rocks to reach the light, or anchor themselves in a growing tree crown that carries them upwards (Oldeman 1990). At an early stage in development, leaves grow from the lower stem and its first branches, so when leaves in particular are applied medicinally, the liana may be grown in relatively open spaces and be organized to support itself so as to allow for easier harvest. Some of the leaves documented in this selection were from lianas grown in this way.

With the development of canopy farming©, leaves could be harvested also from lianas that have reached the canopy region without removing the entire stem or having to climb each tree separately, thus enabling long-term harvest of leaves through renewed growth and structural access. For information on canopy farming©, the reader is referred to Beckers & Verhoeven 1996 , Valverde 1997 ,Leenders 2000, and to the site of The Canopy Foundation.

If the objective on the other hand is to harvest the stem, lianas exceeding a certain diameter (generally responding to an age of three years) that extent into the canopy region may have to be removed for most of their length, leaving roots and some of their stem to provide as a basis for reiteration. Another way to ensure future harvests is to plant several cuts from the removed liana after roots have started to grow.

The local name, harvested part, preparation and medicinal application of the documented lianas can be read after clicking on the images surrounding this text.



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