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New publication

In 2006 the Foundation published a new book "The tale of the Przewalski's Horse - Coming Home to Mongolia", a book about the natural and human history of the Przewalski-horse (Takh), its present range, the Hustai National Park and its country Mongolia. It is a scientifically sound book for a conservation minded public.

Each part starts with observations by Mongolians on what the subject at hand means to them. This leads from a judgement/opinion on the present, on to what the future should/could hold. Illustrations-maps, diagrams and especially pictures take up about half of the space.

You can order this book (including DVD) directly at the foundation for € 39,50 excluding postage. When you are only interested in the DVD "The Takh back in Mongolia" then you can order it seperately for € 14,75 excluding postage. All revenues of both the book and the DVD will be for the benefit of the Hustai National Park in mongolia.

Mare with foalReference list

You can also download your copy of our free information booklet in English or Dutch.

Why do we offer a list with references on the Przewalski horse?

Here to fore, several articles and books have been published about the Przewalski horse. Unfortunately many references were either difficult to obtain or much information has never been published. Many people from all over the world asked us to inform them on publications about the Przewalski horse. We therefore include references in this site without pretending that it is complete. The list is can be downloaded as pdf file (102 kb). We would appreciate a little note if you save it.

General list

Allen, J.L. 1992. Immobilization of Mongolian wild horses (Equus przewalskii przewalskii) with carfentanil and antagonism with naltrexone. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 23:422-425.

Amos, N. 1987. The status and conservation of the British population of Przewalski's horse. M.S. Thesis, University College, London.

Anonymous. 1884. Przevalsky's wild horse. Nature 30:391-392.

Antonius, O. 1928. Beobachtungen an Einhufern in Schönbrunn II. Die mongolischen Wildpferde. - Zool. Garten NF. 1:87-94.

Antonius, O. 1935. Beobachtungen an Einhufern in Schönbrunn XIII. - Zool. Garten NF. 8:100-110.

Ashton, D.G. 1984. A survey of diseases of the Przewalski horse. Equus (Berlin) 2(2):179-188.

Ashton, D.G., and D.M. Jones 1979. Some diseases of the Przewalski horse. Pages 149-156 in de Boer, L.E.M., J. G. Bouman and I. Bouman (eds.). Genectis and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bader, H., S. Gremmes, H. Sieme, M. Paar, H.O. Hoppen, and K.P. Brandt. 1991. Subfertility in the male Przewalski horse. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supplement 44:676-677.

Ballou, J.D. 1994. Population biology. In: Boyd, L. & K. A. Houpt (eds.): Przewalski's Horse. The History and Biology of an Endangered Species. - State University of New York Press: 93-113.

Bandi, N. 2000. Adaptation of takhi (Equus przewalskii Poljakoff, 1881) in Hustai National Park, Mongolia. News Biosphere Reserve "ASKANIA NOVA": protection and preservation of rare species. Pp 22-26.

Bannikow, A.G. 1954. Die Säugetiere der Mongolischen Volksrepublik. - Moskau (russ.).

Bannikov, A.G. 1958. Distribution géographique et biologie du cheval sauvage et du chameau de Mongolie (Equus przewalskii et Camelus bactrianus). Mammalia 22(1):152-160.

Bannikow, A.G. & W.D. Treus. 1967. Die Zucht des Przewalskipferdes in der Sowjetunion. - Equus 1, 2:246-251.

Bannikov, A.G., and N.W. Lobanov. 1980. Przewalski horse (in Russian). Priroda 3:100- 105.

Bell, J. 1763. A Yourney from St. Petersburg to Pekin (A Scottish Physician in the Service of Tsar Alexander 1719-1722). - Reprint Edinburgh 1965.

Benirschke, K., N. Malouf, R.J. Low, and H. Heck. 1965. Chromosome complement: differences between Equus caballus and Equus przewalskii, Poliakoff. Science 148:382-383.

Berg, van den A. 1989. Het laatste wilde paard. R.H.L. te Dronten, (unpublished report) 1-26.

Berger, A. 1993. Untersuchungen zum Tagesrhythmus beim Przewalskipferd im Winter (Equus przewalskii POLJAKOV, 1881). Diplomarbeit Berlin, IZW/Humboldt-Univ.

Berger, A. 1999. Chronobiological investigations on Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) and Red deer under quasi-natural conditions and possible approaches to chronobiological diagnosis of stress. PhD Dissertation Halle.

Bijnens, E. 1983. Gedragsstudie van het Przewalskipaard (Equus przewalskii przewalskii Poljakov 1881) in het domein Plankendael (Mechelen). Rijksuniversiteit te Gent, (unpublished report). 109 pp.

Blaak, H. 1992. Putting up electric fences in Mongolia. Przewalski Horse 29:5-9.

Boer, de L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman. 1979. Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 176 pp.

Boerema, J. 1983. Het eetgedrag van paarden, onder semi - natuurlijke omstandigheden. R.H.L. te Groningen (unpublished report). 51 pp.

Boerema, J. 1984. Onderzoek naar Przewalski paarden op de "Noorderheide", R.H.L. te Groningen, 1-50.

Bökönyi, S. 1974. The Przevalsky Horse. Souvenir Press, London. 140 pp.

Bos, H. 1999. Body condition scoring in free living Przewalski horses. Vestnik zoologii. The Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 11:25-31

Bouman, J.G. 1977. The future of Przewalski horses in captivity. International Yearbook 17:62-68.

Bouman, J.G., and H. Bos. 1979. Two symptoms of inbreeding depression in Przewalski horses living in captivity. Pages 111-117 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman (eds.). Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman, J.G., and I. Bouman-Heinsdijk. 1979. The introduction of the Przewalski horse in the wild. Pages 165-168 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman (eds.). Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman. J.G. 1980. Eine Analyse der Stammbuch-Daten und einige Konklusionen hinsichtlich der zukünftigen Züchtung der Przewalskipferde in Gefangenschaft. Equus (Berlin) 2(1): 21-42.

Bouman, J.G. 1982. The history of breeding the Przewalski horse in captivity. Pages 17-64 in: Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld. 1982. Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 240 pp.

Bouman-Heinsdijk, I. 1982. Is re-introduction of Przewalski horses into the wild a realistic idea? Pages 177-220 in: Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman-Heinsdijk, I. 1982. Semi-reserves for the Przewalski horse as an intermediary step between captivity and reintroduction into the wild and an international stallion exchange strategy to reduce inbreeding in captivity. Pages 221-229 in: Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman, I., and J.G. Bouman. 1989. Gefangenschaftszucht des Przewalski-Pferdes: Uberleben der Przewalski-ähnlichen Abkömmlinge oder die Rettung des Pferdes? Pages 269-305 in: Schneider, E., H. Oelke, and H. Grob (eds). Die Illusion der Arche Noah. Gefahren für die Arterhaltung durch Gefangenschaftzucht. Echo Verlag, Göttingen.

Bouman, I., and J.G. Bouman. 1990. Report on the semi-reserves project IUCN/WWF no. 3077. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski Horse. Zoologischer Garten Leipzig:184-190.

Bouman, I. and J.G. Bouman. 1994. The History of Przewalski's Horse. In: Boyd, L. and K.A. Houpt (eds.) Przewalski's Horse, the History and Biology of an Endangered Species. SUNYSERIES. State University of N.Y. Press: 5-38.

Bouman, I. 1998. The reintroduction of Przewalski-horses in the Hustain Nuruu Mountain Forest Steppe Reserve in Mongolia, an integrated conservation development project. Mededelingen No. 32. Ned. Comm. Int. Natuurbescherming: 1-50.

Bouman, I. 1999. The reintroduction of Przewalski horses in the Hustain Nuruu National Park in Mongolia. Vestnik zoologii. The Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 11:32-46

Bouman, I. 2000. The reintroduction of Przewalski Horse in the Hustain Nuruu mountain forest steppe reserve in Mongolia: an integrated conservation development project. Gazella. 27:27-52.

Bowling, A.T., and O.A. Ryder. 1987. Genetic studies of blood markers in Przewalski's horses. The Journal of Heredity 78:75-80.

Bowling, A.T.; Zimmermann, W; Ryder O.A. et al. 2000. Genetic variation in Przewalski's horses. News Biosphere Reserve "ASKANIA NOVA": protection and preservation of rare species. Pp 16-21.

Boyd, L. 1985. The advantages of bachelor herds to manage surplus males in Przewalski horses.

Boyd, L. 1986. Behavior problems of equids in zoos. Pages 653-664 in: Crowell-Davis, S.L., and K.A. Houpt (eds.). Behavior. The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 2(3). W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Boyd, L. 1988. The behavior of Przewalski's horses. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 290 pp.

Boyd, L. 1988. Time budgets of adult Przewalski horses: effects of sex, reproductive status, and enclosure. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:19-39.

Boyd, L. 1988. Ontogeny of behavior in Przewalski horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:41-69.

Boyd, L. 1991. The behavior of Przewalski's horses and its importance to their management. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 29:301-318.

Boyd, L., and L. Kasman. 1986. The marking behavior of male Przewalski's horses. Pages 623-626 in: Duvall, D., D. Müller-Schwarze, and R.M. Silverstein (eds.). Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 4. Plenum Press, New York.

Boyd, L.E., D.A. Carbonaro, and K.A. Houpt. 1988. The 24-hour time budget of Przewalski horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:5-17.

Boyd, L.E.; Kasman, L.H.; Lasley, B.L. Urinary estrone sulfate concentrations in Przewalski's horses and behavioral correlates. Vestnik zoologii. The Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 11:47-53.

Boyd, L. and N. Bandi. 2002. Reintroduction of takhi, Equus ferus przewalskii, to Hustai National Park, Mongolia: time budget and synchrony of activity pre- and post-release. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 78:87-102

Brentjes, B. 1967. Einige Darstellungen des Przewalskipferdes aus Vorderasien und Kaukasien. Equus (Berlin) 1(2):285-291.

Bubenik, A.B. 1961. Vierundzwantigstunden-Rhythmus des Przewalski-Pferdes (Equus przewalskii Pol. 1881) während der Laktation und beginnender Brunst. Equus (Berlin) 1:122-140.

Buisman, A.K., and R. van Weeren. 1982. Breeding and management of Przewalski horses in captivity. Pages 77-160 in: Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Conway, W.G. 1980. An overview of captive propagation. Pages 199-208 in: Soule, M.E., and B.A. Wilcox (eds.). Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.

Dathe, H. 1984. Conclusions and Recommendations. 4th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski Horse. Equus (Berlin) 2(2):246-247.

Dathe, H., and A. Wünschmann. 1980. Einführung. Equus (Berlin) 2(1):5-7.

Dierendonck, M.C. and M.F. Wallis de Vries. 1996. Ungulate Reintroductions: Experiences with the Takhi or Przewalski Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Mongolia. Paper summited August 22, 1994; revised manuscript accepted June 26, 1995. Conservation Biology, Vol 10. No.3, June 1996, pp 728-740.

Dierendonck, M.C. and N. Bandi, D. Batdorj, S. Dügerlham, B. Munkhtsog. 1996. Behavioural observations of reintroduced Takhi or Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Mongolia. Accepted 9 May 1996. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50:pp 95 - 114.

Dijkstra, S. 1984. Chromosomen onderzoek aan 15 Przewalski paarden, Vakgroep Funktionele Morfologie van de fakulteit Diergeneeskunde, Utrecht, 1-22.

Dobroruka, L.J. 1961. Eine Verhaltensstudie des Przewalski-Urwild-pferdes (Equus przewalskii Poliakov 1881) in dem Zoologischen Garten Prag. Equus (Berlin) 1:89-104.

Dolan, J.M. 1982. Przewalski's horse, Equus przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881, in the United States prior to 1940 and its influence on the present breeding. Zoologische Garten 52:49-65.

Dovchin, N. 1961. The Przewalski horse in Mongolia. Equus (Berlin) 1:22-27 (translated from Russian by E. Geldermans).

Dube, A. 1994. Zur Geschichte, Biologie und Wiederauswilderung von Equus przewalskii Poljakov und Beobachtungen an einer Gruppe von Przewalskistuten im Semireservat Schorfheide. Belegarbeit Humboldt-Universität Berlin/IZW Berlin.

Dubrovskaya, R.M., I.M. Starodumov, and V.V. Klimov. 1982a. Hereditary polymorphism in proteins, ferments and blood groups of Przewalski's horses in Askania Nova reserve (in Russian). Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of the All-Union Theriological Society 34:Mammals I.

Dubrovskaya, R.M., I.M. Starodumov, and V.V. Klimov. 1982b. Hereditary polymorphism in proteins, ferments and blood groups of Przewalski's horses in the USSR (in Russian). Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the All-Union Society of Geneticists and Selectionists 4:192.

Enkhee, D. and N. Bandi. 1999. Takh food preferences in Khustai National Park, Mongolia. In press. 9 pp.

Ewart, J.C. 1907. On a hybrid between Prejevalsky's horse (Equus prejevalsky) and highland pony.-Nature, London 76:407.

Feh, C. 1988. Social behaviour and relationships of Przewalski horses in Dutch semi-reserves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:71-87.

Fisher, R.A., W. Putt, A.M. Scott, C.M. Hawkey, P.D. Butcher, D.G. Ashton, and P. Bircher. 1979. Gene markers in 40 Przewalski horses. International Zoo Yearbook 19:228-235.

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO).1986 The Przewalski horse and restoration to its natural habitat in Mongolia. Animal production and health paper 61, FAO, Rome.

Frechkop, S. 1957. Le Cheval de Prjewalski. Zoo Antwerpen 23: 48-55,5 Abb.

Frechkop, S. 1964. Remarques concernant l' historie et la genetique du cheval. Inst. Royal d. Sc. nat. de Belgique XL, 13:13-33.

Frechkop, S. 1965. La spécificité du cheval de Prjewalsky. Bulletin de I'Institut royale des Sciences naturelles de Belgie 41, no. 29, 17 pp.

Frechkop, S. 1967. Einige Schädelmerkmale des Urwildpferdes. Equus 1,2: 292-294.

Garutt, V.E.W., I.I. Sokolov, and T.N. Salesskaja. 1965. Erforschung und Zucht des Przewalski-Pferdes (Equus przewalskii Poljakoff) in der Sowjetunion. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie 82(4):377-426.

Geyer, C.J., and E.A. Thompson. 1988. Gene survival in the Asian wild horse (Equus przewalskii):I. Dependence of gene survival in the Calgary breeding group pedigree. Zoo Biology 7:313-327.

Geyer, C.J., E.A. Thompson, and O.A. Ryder. 1989. Gene survival in the Asian wild horse (Equus przewalskii):II. Gene survival in the whole population, in subgroups, and through history. Zoo Biology 8:313-329.

Giessen, van der S. 1996. The application of IUCN Guidelines to the Re-introduction of the Przewalski Horse. University Amsterdam. Unpublished report: 1-41

Gorgas, M. 1966. Betrachtung zur Hirnschädelkapazität zentralasiatischer Wildsäugetiere und ihrer Haustierformen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 176: 227-235.

Greif, A. 1989. Beobachtungen an Przewalski pferden (Equus ferus przewalskii) im Hinblick auf ihren Hauspferdanteil. Diplomarbeit im Fachbereich Biologie der Johannes - Gutenberg- Universität Mainz (unpublished report). 187 pp.

Grevé, C. 1901. Equus przewalskii Poljakow im Moskauer Zoologischen Garten und einige Bemerkungen über das wilde Pferd überhaupt. Zool. Garten 42: 275-282, 1 Abb.

Gromann, C. 2000. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zu zirkadianen und ultradianen Rhythmen bei Haus- und Wildpferde. Diplomarbeit M. Luther Universität Halle/IZW Berlin.

Groves, C.P. 1974. Horses, Asses and Zebras in the Wild. Ralph Curtis Books, Hollywood, Florida. 192 pp.

Groves, C.P., and D.P. Willoughby. 1981. Studies on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Equus. I: Subgeneric classification of the recent species. Mammalia 45:321-354.

Groves, C.P. 1986. The taxonomy, distribution and adaptations of recent equids. Pages 11-65 in: Meadow, R.H., and H.P. Uerpmann (eds.). Equids in the Ancient World. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden. 421 pp.

Gruenerwald, W. 1982. A Computer Analysis of Studbook Data for the Przewalski Horse (Equus przewalskii). Canyon Colorado Equid Sanctuary, Wagon Mound, New Mexico. 432 pp.

Gruenerwald, W. 1985. A Computer Analysis of Studbook Data for the Przewalski Horse (Equus przewalskii). Supplement I 1982-1983. Canyon Colorado Equid Sanctuary, Wagon Mound, New Mexico. 140 pp.

Grum-Grzhimailo, G.E. 1892. The wild horse (Equus przewalskii). From the diary of a travel to China in 1889-1890 (translated by Aleinikov, P.). Niva 17.

Guodong, L. 1996. Track Down Origin of the Pedigree for the Xinjiang's Przewalskii Horse. China Meteorological Press. Beijing, 90 p.

Hagenbeck, C. 1926. Auf Tierfang-Pfaden in der Mongolei. Carl Hagenbeck's illustrierte Tier und Menschenwelt. Jahrgang I, Heft 3:49-54.

Hagenbeck, C. 1926. Auf Tierfang in der Mongolei. (Aus: Von Tieren und Menschen). Leipzig.

Heck, H. 1934. Urwildpferde. Das Tier und Wir, Nr. 7: 1-7.

Heck, H. 1967. Die Merkmale des Przewalskipferdes. Equus (Berlin) 1:295-301.

Hegel, von G., H. Weisner, and T. Hänichen. 1990. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski horse. Zoologischer Garten Leipzig:263-268.

Heiss, L. 1970. Askania Nova, Animal Paradise in Russia. The Bodley Head, London. 175 pp.

Herre, V.W. 1961. Grundsätzliches zur Systematik des Pferdes. Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie 75(1):57-78.

Herre, W. 1967. Gedanken zur Erhaltung des Wildpferdes, Equus przewalskii Poljakow 1881. Equus (Berlin) 1(1):304-325.

Hogan, E.S., K.A. Houpt, and K. Sweeney. 1988. The effect of enclosure size on social interactions and daily activity patterns of the captive Asiatic wild horse (Equus przewalskii). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:147-168.

Hovens J.P.M.; Tungalaktuja , K.H.; Todgeril , T.l Batdorj D. 2000. The impact of wolves canis lupus(L., 1758) on wild ungulates and nomadic livestoock in and around the Hustain Nuruu steppe reserve (Mongolia). Lutra 43:39-50

Hutson, A.D. 1975. Aspects of the social behaviour of Przewalski's horse. Department of Biological Science, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth, U.K. 57 pp.

IUCN, 1987. Position statement on translocations of living organisms. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.

Jun, Z., Y. Hui, and M.C. De. 1990. Przewalski's horse breeding report (1987-1990). Chinese Wildlife 90(6): (in Chinese).

Kalz, B. 1994. Untersuchungen zum Feindvermeidungsverhalten unter Berücksichtigung des Sozialverhaltebs von zoogeborenen Przewalskipferde im Semireservat Schorfheide. Diplomarbeit Berlin, IZW/Humboldt-Univ.

Kaszab, Z. 1968. Entgegnung auf die Bemerkungen von Jiri Volf bezüglich: "New Sighting of Przewalski horses?" Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde 33:62-63.

Keiper, R.R. 1988. Social interactions of the Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii Poliakov, 1881) herd at the Munich Zoo. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:89-97

Keiper, R.R. 1989. Social behavior of captive and free-ranging Przewalski horses. In: Abstracts of the 21st Int. Ethological Conf. Utrecht, 93.

Keiper, R.R. 1990. Social interactions of free-ranging Przewalski horses in semi-reserves. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski Horse. Zoologischer Garten Leipzig: 176-183.

Keiper, R.R., and H. Receveur. 1992. Social interactions of free-ranging Przewalski horses in semi-reserves in The Netherlands. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 33: 303-318.

Keverling-Buisman, A. and R. van Weeren. 1978. Een gedragsstudie van Equus Przewalskii, Burgers Dierenpark, Arnhem. 37 pp.

Keverling Buisman, A., and R. van Weeren. 1982. Breeding and management of Przewalski horses in captivity. Pages 77-160 in: Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release in the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

King, S.R.B. 1996. The social behaviour and behavioural ecology of a bachelor group of Przewalski horses under free - ranging conditions. B.S.C. degree final year, Zoology Project, University of London (unpublished report). 44 pp

King, S.R.B. 2002. Home range and habitat use of free-ranging Przewalski horses at Hustai National Park, Mongolia. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78:101-113

Klimov, V.V. 1988. Spatial-ethological organization of the herd of Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) in Askania-Nova. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21:99-115.

Knowles, J.H. 1980. History of the Marwell Zoological Park's herd of Przewalski horses. Equus (Berlin) 2:73-78.

Knowles J. and S. Wakefield. 1992. Zebras, asses and horses. An action plan for the conservation of wild equids. World Conservation Union/SSC Equid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland Duncan (ed.):1-36.

Kolter, L. 1986. Soziale Beziehungen zwischen den Przewalski pferden (Equus p. przewalskii) im Kölner Zoo. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 4(29): 193-201.

Kolter, L. and W. Zimmermann. 1988. Social behaviour of Przewalski horses (Equus p. przewalskii) in the Cologne Zoo and its consequences for management and housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 21: 117-145.

Kuttner, C., and H. Wiesner. 1987. Changes in blood values of Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii przewalskii) and zebras (Equus zebra hartmannae) during chemical immobilization. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 18:144-147.

Leboucher, A. 1992. Behavioural study of the Przewalski stallions living in the semi-reserve of the Goudplaat, The Netherlands. Towards reintroduction: which stallion is behaviourally fitted for survival in Mongolia? Unpublished report. 163 pp.

Lenstra, G. 1993. Gedrag van Przewalski paarden in semi - reservaat " De Ooy". Vakgroep Veehouderij, Sectie Ethologie Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (unpublished report). 88 pp.

Lewtas, P.N. 1973. Aspects of social behaviour of Mongolian wild horses. Department of Biological Sciences, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth, U.K. 42 pp. (unpubl).

Lichtenstein, R. 1980. Vergleichende untersuchen zur gruppen struktur von wildeguiden. Lizentiatsarbeit - Zoologisches Institut der Universität Bern, Ethologische Station Hasli (unpublished report). 97 pp.

Liefbroer, P. 1982. Een onderzoek naar de groepsstruktuur van 3 groepen Przewalski paarden. R.H.L. te Leeuwarden (unpublished report). 64 pp.

Liu, S.K., E.P. Dolensek, C.R. Adams, and J.P. Tappe. 1983. Myelopathy and vitamin E deficiency in six Mongolian wild horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 183:1266-1268.

MacClintock, D. 1982. Where have all the horses gone? Animal Kingdom 85(5):26-31.

Mackler, S.F., and J.M. Dolan, Jr. 1980. Social structure and herd behavior of Equus przewalskii Poliakov, 1881 at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Equus (Berlin) 2(1):55-69.

MACNE 1996. Proceedings of the National Mongolian Takhi Conference. Tserendeleg, J. (ed.) Ulaanbaatar. (summaries papers in English). 1-104

Martens, M. 1980. Vergleichende untersuchungen zur sozialen organisation einer Przewalski - jungtier gruppe. Diplomarbeit - Universität Bonn (unpublished report) - 91 pp.

Matschie, P. 1903. Giebt es in Mittelasien mehrere Arten von echten Wildpferden? Naturwissschaftliche Wochenschrift 18:581-583.

Matthews, J.G., and J.D.A. Delhanty. 1979. Chromosome tudies in Przewalskis horses, (Equus przewalskii). Pages 71-83 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman, (eds.). Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse. Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Mazák, V. 1961. Die Hautpflege bei dem Przewalski-Urwildpferd (Equus przewalskii przewalskii Poliakov). Equus (Berlin) 1:105-121.

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Mohr, E. 1971. The Asiatic Wild Horse. J.A. Allen & Co. Ltd., London. 124 pp.

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Ryder, O.A., and E.A. Wedemeyer. 1982. A cooperative breeding program for the Mongolian wild horse, Equus przewalskii, in the United States. Biological Conservation 22:259-271.

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Ryder, O.A. 1988. Przewalski's horse - putting the wild horse back in the wild. Oryx 22:154-157.

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Scheibe, K.M.; Eichhorn, K.; Kalz, B. et al. 1998. Water consumption and watering behaviour of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in a semireserve. Zoo Biology 17:181-192.

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Schepper, de G.G. and de France, H.F. 1979. Chromosome Analysis of the Mongolian domestic horse. A preliminary report, Rotterdam. The Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, 85-86

Schirnecker, B. 1921. Equus przewalskii Poljakoff, seine Geschichte und Einführung in Deutschland unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Versuche am Tierzucht-Institut Halle. Dissertation Halle (Saale).

Schubert, M. 1984. Beobachtungen über das Sozialverhalten der Przewalskipferde (Equus przewalskii) im Nurnbergen Tiergarten. Facharbeit Universität Nurnberg (unpublished report). 40 pp.

Schwarzenberger, F., E. Mostl, E. Bamberg, and G. von Hegel. 1992. Monitoring of corpus luteum function by measuring progestagens in faeces on non-pregnant mares (Equus caballus) and Przewalski mares (Equus przewalskii). Animal Reproductive Science 29:263-273.

Sclater, P.L. 1901. (Equus przewalskii in Woburn). Proc. Zool. Soc. London 2:505.

Scott, A.M. 1979. Red-cell groups and serum types in the Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii). Pages 33-40 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman (eds.).Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse. Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Seal, U.S., T. Foose, R.C. Lacy, W. Zimmermann, O. Ryder, and F. Princee. 1990. Przewalski's horse, Equus przewalskii, Global Conservation Plan Draft. Captive Breeding Specialist Group. SSC/IUCN, Apple Valley, MN 230 pp.

Short, R.V., A.C. Chandley, R.C. Jones, and W.R. Allen. 1974. Meiosis in interspecific equine hybrids. II. The Przewalski horse/domestic horse hybrid (Equus przewalskii X E. caballus). Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 13:465-478.

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Skiff, E.M. 1980. The effects of crowding on the social relationships and behaviour of the Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii).

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Spöttel, W. 1926. Equus przewalskii Polj., 1881 mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der im Tierzuchtinstitut der Universität Halle gehaltenen Tiere. Kühn Archiv - Verlagsbuchhandlung. Paul Parey, Berlin.137 pp. 11:89-137.

Stanley Price, M. General aspects of Reintroduction. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Preservation of the Przewalski Horse. Zoologischer Garten Leipzig: 169-173.

Stecher, R.M. 1961. The Przewalski horse: Notes on variations in the lumbo sacral spine. Equus (Berlin) 1:191-196.

Summers, P.M., A.M. Shephard, J.K. Hodges, J. Kydd, M.S. Boyle, and W.R. Allen. 1987. Successful transfer of the embryos of Przewalski's horses (Equus przewalskii) and Grant's zebra (E. burchelli) to domestic mares (E. caballus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supplement 80:13-20.

Tan, B. 1981. Wild horses found in northern China. International Zoo News 170, 28(1):16-17.

Tichomirow, A. 1902. Zur näheren Kenntnis des Equus przewalskii. Zool. Anz. 25: 344-349.

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Trommershausen-Smith, A., Y. Suzuki, C. Stormont, K. Benirschke, and O.A. Ryder. 1980. Blood type markers in five Przewalski's horses. Equus (Berlin) 2:52-54.

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Veselovsky, Z., and J. Volf. 1965. Breeding and care of rare asian equids at Prague Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 5:28-37.

Volf, J. 1958. Pour le sauvetage des chevaux de Przevalski (Equus przewalskii Poljakoff, 1881). Mammalia 22:598-600.

Volf, J. 1960-1990. Pedigree Book of the Przewalski horses. Zoological Garden Prague, Czechoslovakia, published annually.

Volf, J. 1965. Liste der Reste des Przewalskipferdes, Equus przewalskii Polj., 1881. Z. Säugetierk. 30:297-305.

Volf, J. 1967. New sighting of Przewalski horses? Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde 32:245-246.

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Volf, J. 1974. Die Färbung des Przewalski-Wildpferdes (Equus przewalskii Poljakov 1881) und ihre Variabilität. Zoologische Garten, Neue Folge 44:64-73.

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Volf, J. in cooperation with E. Kus. 1996. Das Urwildpferd: Equus przewalskii. 4e überarb. Aufl. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei; Band 249. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg, 1996. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin Oxford, pp. 5-147.

Wakefield, S. 1993. The social behaviour and behavioural ecology of a bachelor group of Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) under free-ranging conditions in a semi-reserve, Hampshire U.K. (unpublished report). 13 pp.

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Books on the Przewalski horses

Introduction

The pre-eminent compendium on the species was written by Dr Erna Mohr in 1959 and translated into English in 1971. Although Mohr's book has never be surpassed for its firsthand accounts of the early history of the species and its extensive illustrations, much has happened since her book was written. In 1994 Lee Boyd and Katherine Houpt edited the second standard book on the species in which all up to date information on the Przewalski horse is gathered in one place.

The following books were published on the Przewalski horse:

Boer, de L.E.M., J.G. Bouman and I. Bouman (eds.). 1979. Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 177 pp.

Bökönyi, S. 1974. The Przevalski Horse. Souvenir Press, London, 140 pp.

Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman and A. Groeneveld (eds.). 1982. Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 240 pp.

Boyd, L. and K.A. Houpt (eds.). 1994. Przewalski's horse, the History and Biology of an Endangered Species. SUNNY SERIES, State University of New York Press. 313 pp.

Mohr, E. 1959. Das Urwildpferd. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt. 144 pp.

Mohr, E. 1971. The Asiatic Wild Horse. J.A. Allen and Co Ltd., London. 124 pp.

Volf, J. 1996. Das Urwildpferd. Die Neue Brehm - Bücherei, Bd 249 Spektrum Akademischer Verlag - Heidelberg. 147 pp. (This book is a revised edition of Mohr's book)

Weeks, M. 1977. The last wild horse. Houghton Miffin Company Boston. 144 pp.

The following books for children were published on the Przewalski horse

Aldridge, J. 1974. The Marvellous Mongolian. Piccolo Book. Macmillan London Limited. 139 pp. (This Book also was published in the German language by Paul Zsolnay Verlag, Wien, Hamburg. 1975. ISBN 3-552-02718-1).

Babos, A. 1998. De laatste wilde paarden. Uitgeverij C. de Vries-Brouwers/Rotterdam en Antwerpen. 24 pp.

Cottrell Free, A. 1963. Forever the Wild Mare. Dodd, Mead and Company, New York. 178 pp.

Gruber, W. 1994. Lauf, Tachi! Ein Urwildpferd hat keinen Namen. Aare Verlag. Frankurt am Main. 135 pp.

Slaughter Doty, J. 1985. Yesterday's Horses. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 114 Przewalski-paard. (This book was also translated in Danish language with in the title ZIPPER. 1987. ISBN 91-32-12859-2).

Streblow, L. 1992. Wirru, das Wildpferd. Loewes Verlag. Bindlach. 133 pp.

Publications of the Foundation or activities initiated by the Foundation on the Przewalski horse projects

Ashton, D.G., and D.M. Jones. 1979. Some diseases of the Przewalski horse. Pages 149-156 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman and I. Bouman (eds.). Genectis and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bandi, N. 1994-1996. Takhis in Hustain Nuruu. Unpublished internal report for DGIS/FRPH, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bandi, N. 2000. Adaptation of takhi (Equus przewalskii Poljakoff, 1881) in Hustai National Park, Mongolia. News Biosphere Reserve "ASKANIA NOVA": protection and preservation of rare species. Pp 22-26.

Berg, van den A. 1989. Het laatste wilde paard. R.H.L. te Dronten, (unpublished report) 1-26.

Blaak, H. 1992. Putting up electric fences in Mongolia. Przewalski Horse 29:5-9.

Boer, de L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman. 1979. Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 176 pp.

Boerema, J. 1983. Het eetgedrag van paarden onder semi - natuurlijke omstandigheden. R.H.L. te Groningen (unpublished report). 51 pp.

Boerema, J. 1984. Onderzoek naar Przewalski paarden op de "Noorderheide", R.H.L. te Groningen, 1-50.

Bos, H. 1999. Body condition scoring in free living Przewalski horses. Vestnik zoologii. The Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 11:25-31

Bouman, J.G. 1977. The future of Przewalski horses in captivity. International Yearbook. 17:62-68.

Bouman, J.G., and H. Bos. 1979. Two symptoms of inbreeding depression in Przewalski horses living in captivity. Pages 111-117 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman (eds.). Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman, J.G., and I. Bouman-Heinsdijk. 1979. The introduction of the Przewalski horse in the wild. Pages 165-168 in: de Boer, L.E.M., J.G. Bouman, and I. Bouman (eds.). Genetics and Hereditary Diseases of the Przewalski Horse. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman. J.G. 1980. Eine Analyse der Stammbuch-Daten und einige Konklusionen hinsichtlich der zukünftigen Züchtung der Przewalskipferde in Gefangenschaft. Equus (Berlin) 2(1): 21-42.

Bouman, J.G. 1982. The history of breeding the Przewalski horse in captivity. Pages 17-64 in Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld (eds.). Breeding Przewalski Horse in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Bouman, J.G., I. Bouman, and A. Groeneveld. 1982. Breeding Przewalski Horses in Captivity for Release into the Wild. Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski Horse, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 240 pp.

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